Amygdala An almond-shape set of neurons located deep in the brain's medial temporal lobe. It as been known as the centre for emotions, emotional behaviour, and motivation. However, new research is helping us understand more about how emotions are made.                                                    
Applied Pedagogy

The method and practice of teaching applied, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept. 


Behavioural Learning A process in which experience with the environment leads to a relatively permanent change in behaviour or the potential for a change in behaviour.


Cognitive Learning Learning that is concerned with acquisition of problem-solving abilities and with intelligence and conscious thought. It is the theory that defines learning as a behavioural change based on the acquisition of information about the environment.
Cognitive Science The interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition.


Digital Learning Any instructional practice that effectively uses technology to strengthen a student's learning experience



A strong feeling deriving from one's circumstances or perception, mood, or relationships with others; instinctive or intuitive feeling as distinguished from reasoning or knowledge: responses have to be based on historical insight, not simply on emotion.


Fixed Mindset In a fixed mindset, people believe their basic qualities, like their intelligence or talent, are simply fixed traits.
Frontal Lobe Each of the paired lobes of the brain lying immediately behind the forehead, including areas concerned with behaviour, learning, personality, and voluntary movement.


Growth Mindset In a growth mindset, people believe that their most basic abilities can be developed through dedication and hard work.


Hippocampus The part of the brain that is involved in forming, storing, and processing memory








Learnable Intelligence  Learnable intelligence is the combination of experiential intelligence and reflective intelligence.
Levels of Expertise  Levels of Achievement


Metacurriculum A set of supplemental activities that promote students thinking about the why and how of learning. Teaching learning-to-learn competencies simultaneously with the course or intended curriculum content.
Mindfulness A mental state achieved by focusing one's awareness on the present moment, while calmly acknowledging and accepting one's feelings, thoughts, and bodily sensations, used as a therapeutic technique


Neuroscience Any or all of the sciences, such as neurochemistry and experimental psychology, which deal with the structure or function of the nervous system and brain
Neuroscience of Learning Humans adapt their behaviour to their external environment in a process often facilitated by learning. Efforts to describe learning empirically can be complemented by quantitative theories that map changes in neurophysiology to changes in behaviour.
Neuroplasticity The brain's ability to reorganise itself by forming new neural connections throughout life
Neural Connections Connections between neurons
Neural Networks Any group of neurons that conduct impulses in a coordinated manner




PEN Principles A series of resources (PEN Principles) for teachers, students and parents.  The Principles are based on the Science of Learning Centre’s research from the three nodes of Neuroscience, Psychology and Education       






Science of Learning The exploration of the science behind learning.
Self-regulation The ability to control one’s feelings and behaviours


Thinking Tools Tools for categorising questions and activities according to six levels of thinking: remembering, understanding, applying, analysing, evaluating and creating.




Visible Learning John Hattie developed this concept after years of research on what has the greatest impact on student achievement. First, it refers to making student learning visible to teachers so they can know whether they are having an impact on this learning. Further, it also refers to making teaching visible to the student as well so that students learn to become their own teachers.









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22nd (& 21st) Century Skills Used to refer to certain core competencies such as collaboration, digital literacy, critical thinking, and problem-solving that advocates believe schools need to teach to help students thrive in today's world.